The change in the Canadian climate is rapid and temperatures are rising twice as fast as the global average. Thawing of the permafrost is taking place, with extreme hot temperatures and lots of precipitation. According to the expert panel on climate change risks and adaptation potential, there are 12 major areas of risks in Canada. These areas of risks include agriculture, coastal communities, ecosystems, fisheries, forestry, geopolitical dynamics, governance and capacity, human health and wellness, Indigenous ways of life, northern communities, physical infrastructure, and water.
With regards to agriculture, Canada faces a tough task in securing their food systems due to unstable climate patterns. Harvesting crops and food production require stable temperatures and the changing climate will make matters worse.
In terms of coastal communities, more precipitation has been forecasted due to climate change which cause flooding of coastal areas in Canada. Due to the storms, coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion will cause destruction of the landscape and infrastructure.
Ecosystems will also be under threat and this threat will extend to species at risks. The ecosystems in Canada provide range of benefits such as habitats for species, environmental regulation and natural resource for logging. Destruction of the ecosystems will also affect the lives and cultures of the Indigenous people of Canada. The land provides them food security through hunting and fishing.
Fisheries in Canada will be affected due to the increasing acidification in the oceans and changing freshwater conditions. These conditions through climate change will cause declining stock of fish.
Canadian Forestry will be affected due to climate change by increasing wildfires due to extreme temperature changes. Timber resource will diminish and due to the changing climate, increasing number of pests such as the Asian Long horned Beetle will eradicate tree species in Canada.
Geopolitical dynamics will also change due to climate change. More foreign aid will have to be distributed to help in combating climate change. Also, environmental refugees will also seek refuge in Canada. This is already being seen in Africa, where due to water loss through droughts, people are migrating to new areas in the continent. Also, the island of Mauritius is under threat due to the increasing levels of rainfall and it is expected that climate refugees due to flooding of the island will migrate to Australia and New Zealand.
Human health will also be affected due to climate change. Due to hotter weather, more disease carrying insects will thrive. Also, disease bacteria and pathogens will multiply due to favourable conditions created by climate change. Thus, eradicated diseases of the past will make a comeback due to climate change.
Canadian water supply is at risk due to climate change. Over 68% of the freshwater is found in glaciers and is at risk of melting. This will cause decline in water supply and quality due to changing weather patterns.